Woofer speakers, also known as bass speakers, are devices that can handle low to low-mid frequencies within the audio spectrum. The word woofer derives from the sound that dogs produce when they bark. The frequency of woofer speakers ranges from 40Hz to 500Hz. Here, remember that the lowest frequency sound that the human ear is able to hear is 20Hz. Woofers tend to cover the lowest octaves of a loudspeaker’s frequency range, whereas in a two-way loudspeaker systems, the drivers also cover the mid-range frequency. In this case, the midrange frequency ranges from 2,000Hz to 5,000Hz.
Woofer Speakers: a Larger Description
As mentioned before, subwoofers are a type of woofer that cover extremely low-frequencies. People commonly use them in home theatre and in PA systems. The aim of this type of woofers is to increase the bass response. Their frequencies range from 20Hz to 120Hz.
There are several types of woofer speakers, such as standard woofers, subwoofers, mid-woofers, and rotary woofers. In essence, they are all built in the same way, but they have some differences as well.
Firstly, standard woofers have a unique sound that derives from the lower frequency sine wave. They are an essential part of higher-end speakers that might contain a woofer and a tweeter, or a woofer, a tweeter and a mid-range speaker. These produce frequencies between 20Hz and 2,000Hz.
Secondly, subwoofers involve one or more woofers inside a wooden container. They produce a sound that the audience can mostly feel, since the human ear is only able to perceive frequencies as low as 12Hz and these devices can only produce tones lower than 200Hz. These subwoofers are typical as add-ons to consumer speaker setups. You will usually find these devices isolated, which provides a low-level beat.
Thirdly, mid-woofers have the best quality sound because they land just in the middle of the woofer range. Users set this type of woofers to frequencies between 200Hz and -5kHz. For this reason, when they reach either end of the spectrum, the quality of the sound begins to deteriorate.
Finally, rotary woofers use the coil’s motion to modify the pitch of fan blades. Since the audio amplifier alters the pitch of the blades, they require much less power than that of a conventional subwoofer. These can produce sounds below 20Hz and easily reach 0Hz. Remember, though, that the human ear cannot hear such low frequencies.